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SAP Financial Accounting & Human Resources

FICO stands for Financial Accounting and Controlling. Financial Accounting used for External Reporting purpose and Controlling used for Internal Reporting Purpose.

Organizational Structure

Company consolidate all company balance sheet for consolidate reports. Company code is self stand legal entity which has its set up of accounting records.

  • Define a Company
  • Define a Company Code
  • Assign Company Code to Company

Global Accounting Setting

Chart of accounts: Listing of SAP general ledger is chart of account which has name and number of the accounts.

Operating chart of accounts: You must assign an operating chart of account to a company code. One company code can have only one operating chart of account assigned. You organize listing of accounts in chart of account by Accounts groups.

Fiscal Year: Fiscal year means financial year of an organization. In fiscal year you define how many normal posting periods and special posting periods are in a Fiscal Year.

Posting period Variant: Which Posting period variant controls which posting periods both normal and special, are open for each company code. To prevent documents from being posted to a wrong posting period, desired periods can be closed.

  • Define Operating chart of accounts
  • Allocate Company Code to Chart Of Accounts
  • Setup Account Groups and their Number Ranges
  • Assign Fiscal Year Variant to company code
  • Assign Posting Period Variant to company code
  • Document Number Ranges for company code

Document Types

Document types differentiate business transactions (General Ledger, Customer Invoice, Asset Posting, Customer Payment etc) and control document filing. For each document type we have to define number ranges. Number ranges control the document entry in the system.

Maintain Document Types

Maintain Document Number Ranges for company code

Field Status Group: Filed Status groups control fields, for each general ledger account (which field is required, optional or suppress) when we post transaction in the system.

  • Assign Field Status variant to Company Code
  • Define Tolerances for Employees

General Ledger

General Ledger Accounts

Create General Ledger Accounts

Sub Ledger: A Subsidiary ledger stores of specific transaction to support general ledger.

Reconciliation account : When you post a transaction to subsidiary ledger (Customer Account, Vendor Account and Asset Account), System automatically post to relevant general ledger account. Customer transaction get posted to A/R recon account, Vendor transaction get posted to A/P recon account and Fixed Asset transaction get posted to Fixed Assed recon account.

Retained Earnings Account

Retained earning account is a equity account and refer as net earning but not paid as dividend. Company retain for re-investments.

  • Retained Earnings Account
  • Expense and Revenue G/L Accounts
  • General Ledger Postings
  • Display Balances of G/L Accounts
  • Display Line Items

Reverse Entries

Once we post transaction in general ledger account than neither we can change certain fields nor delete entry from the system but we can reverse the transaction.

Park Documents

You temporarily save data into park document till get approved. Than we post data into general ledger.

  • Park documents in General Ledger
  • Post a Parked Document

Posting Keys

Posting key controls how a account is posted in debit and credit.

Maintain Posting Keys

Recurring Entries

A recurring entries are repetitive entries that are recorded in every posting period.

Account Assignment Model

Account assignment model is a reference FI document used for posting repetitive transactions where we can use Different company codes, General ledger accounts and cost centers. We can distribute amount or percentage to general ledgers. Account Assignment Model

Account Assignment Model

Set up Business Partners: Customer and Vendor

Customer: A customer is an individual or an organization that purchase the goods and services produced by us.

Vendor: A vendor is an individual or an organization that sell the goods and services to us produced by them.

Customer Invoice: Customer invoices are a document used for requesting money from customer, relating to sale transactions.

  • Set Tolerance for Customers and Vendors
  • Customer Account Groups
  • Create Number ranges for customer accounts
  • Allocate Number Ranges to Customer Groups
  • Customer Master Record
  • Create Vendor Groups
  • Create Number Ranges for vendor Accounts
  • Allocate Number ranges to vendor account groups
  • Create Vendor Master
  • Post a Customer Invoice

Set up Business Partners: Customer and Vendor

  • Incoming payment: Payment received by customers.
  • Outgoing payment: Payment make to vendor.
  • Clear Open Items by Incoming Payments
  • Post Partial Payment against an invoice
  • Residual Payment
  • Create Under / Over Payment Account
  • Assign Under / Over Payment Account to Process Key ZDI
  • Cash Discount Granted Account at General Ledger level
  • Assign Cash Discount Granted Account to process Key SKT
  • Cash Discount Taken Account Process Key SKE
  • Payment Within Tolerance (incoming)
  • Payment within Tolerance (outgoing)
  • Payment within Tolerance with 3% discount

Special Program

Automatic Payment Program: Automatic payment program is used to identify due and overdue vendors, process payments, post transactions to sub ledger, general ledger and print check or send payment details to banks.

Dunning: Dunning letter is a demanding letter to customers for overdue amount. Configure Automatic Payment Program

  • Dunning
  • Down Payment Made
  • Down Payment Received

Reporting

  • The reporting tool "Financial Statement Version"
  • Simple Financial Statement
  • Balance Sheet
  • Profit and Loss Statement

Controlling:

SAP CO (Controlling) module has multiple configuration steps that must be followed for complete implementation of this module. Each sub-component of the controlling module has it's level of configuration requirements. Once you have defined your business needs in the Controlling Area, a determination can be made as to what should be configured and what you do not need.

SAP Controlling Module represents the company's flow of cost and revenue. It is a management instrument for organizational decisions. It too is automatically updated as events occur.

SAP CO allows straightforward integration into R 3 FI, SAP MM or FI AA and enables direct booking of figures from the different sectors. It also offers a wide range of charging techniques for accounting both actual and planned figures.

Controlling - Cost Center Accounting

Controlling Area: Controlling area is the highest organizational unit in controlling. We can assign multiple company codes to one controlling area if they are using – same Operating chart of account, fiscal year and standard hierarchy. But one company code can be assigned to one controlling area only.

Standard Hierarchy: Standard Hierarchy is repository of all cost centers.

Cost Center: A cost center is the basic organizational/responsibility component of a controlling area. A controlling area is broken down into cost centers, which are organized in a standard cost center hierarchy. Cost centers may also be linked to a specific business area, company code, and profit center (i.e., business areas, company codes, profit centers and controlling areas may all be viewed as collections of cost centers).

Primary Cost Elements: A chart of accounts is created for a company (company code) within the financial accounting module of SAP R/3. In SAP R/3 terminology, cost and revenue accounts within a chart of accounts that are involved in cost accounting are referred to as elements, which are further divided into primary cost elements and primary revenue elements. Primary cost and revenue elements are created in the FI module and are used both in the FI and CO modules to account for cost and revenue flows with parties external to the organization. Primary cost and revenue flows are first recorded in FI and then transferred automatically by the R/3 system to a cost or revenue object within the CO module (e.g., cost center, internal order, profitability segment, etc.)

Secondary Cost Elements: Secondary cost elements are created in the CO module and are used exclusively within CO to account for internal cost flows among cost objects within a controlling area (e.g., cost allocations among cost centers).

Setup Controlling Area

  • Set up Controlling area
  • Activate Components / Control Indicators
  • Assign Company Code(s) to Controlling Area
  • Set Controlling Area
  • Maintain Controlling Document groups and their number ranges
  • Create Standard Hierarchy
  • Create Cost Center groups and Cost centers
  • Create Primary Cost Elements
  • Post Transaction in FB50 ( FICO)
  • Display controlling documents
  • Allocate the cost from one cost center to other


SAP HR / HCM Course Curriculum

Enterprise Structure

There are four main components of
enterprise structure

  • Client
  • Company code
  • Personnel Area
  • Personnel Subarea

Personnel Structure

Personnel structure displays position of individual
people in the enterprise as a whole.

  • Define Employee Group
  • Define Employee Subgroup
  • Assign Employee Subgroup to Employee Group
  • Define Employee Attributes

Organizational Management

This is based on Organizational plan. Organizational plan provides foundation of Organizational Management. An organization uses an organizational plan to represent relationships between individual departments and work-groups. The organizational plan uses elements called objects like Persons (P), Jobs (C), Positions (S), Organizational Units (O), and Cost Center (K) etc.

  • Overview of Organizational Management
  • Organization and Staffing
  • Create Organizational Unit
  • Create Organizational Unit under hierarchy
  • Create and Assign Position to Organizational Unit
  • Create Job and Assign to the Position
  • Creating Task(Job/Position/Person)
  • Create Organization structure using Expert Mode Method
    • Organizational Unit
    • Simple Maintenance
    • Create Organizational Unit
    • Create Position
    • Create Job
    • Assign Job to the Position
    • Create Task Group and Task
    • Assign Task to the Job
  • Create Organization structure using Simple Mode Method

Organizational Assignment

  • Define Administrator
  • Overview of Features
  • Define Administrator Group (Feature PINCH)

Integration between Organizational Management and Personnel Administration

  • Activate Integration (PLOGI ORGA)

Hire an Employee

  • Overview of info-type
  • Personnel Action
  • Maintain Info-type
  • Steps to Hire an Employee

Time Management

SAP Time Management provides a flexible way of representing all of your human resources processes that concern the planning, recording, and evaluation of employee times in the SAP System. Time can be represented by both calendar time and real-time in your enterprise.

A work schedule is comprised of a number of individual elements including the public calendar. After the individual elements are defined, they are combined into a work schedule rule from which a work schedule is generated.

  • Group Personnel Subarea for the Work Schedule
  • Group Personnel Subarea for the Daily Work Schedule
  • Define Break Schedule
  • Define Rules for variants
  • Define Daily Work Schedule
  • Define Period Work Schedule
  • Define Employee Subgroup Grouping
  • Define Rules for Variants
  • Define Groupings for the Public Holiday Calendar
  • Set Work Schedule Rules and Work Schedules
  • Assign Your Work Schedule Rule for SCHKZ
  • Hire an Employee

Payroll: Base Configuration

  • Employee Subgroup Grouping for Personnel Calculation Rule (PCR) and Collective
  • Agreement Provision (CAP)
  • Check Pay Scale Type
  • Check Pay Scale Area
  • Check Assignment of Pay Scale Structure to Enterprise Structure
  • Determine Default for Pay Scale Data (TARIF)
  • Create Wage Type Catalog
    Wage types are the key element in the wage type structure. Wage types are the most important concept in Human Resources. Wage types are used to assign payments and deductions and they control the payroll program. Characteristics are used to distinguish the individual wage types.
  • Check Wage Type Group "Basic Pay"

Overview of Payroll Run

  • Simulation
  • Release for Payroll
  • Start Payroll
  • Check Result
  • Corrections
  • Exit Payroll
  • Remuneration Statement

Reporting

  • Simulation
  • Identify a Person in your Organizational Structure
  • Display Job Index Report for the Particular Job
  • Identify and Display Tasks Assigned to your Positions
  • Evaluate Vacant Position in your Organizational Structure
  • Display your Organizational Plan Graphically
  • HIS:- Human Resources Information

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